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Bosnia – General Information And Geography

bosnia where to go

Capital: Sarajevo
Total Area: 51.129 km2
Total Population: 4.354.911 (1991)
Lowest Altitude: City of Neum (0 m)
Highest Altitude: Mountain Maglic (2386 m)
Coast Line: 21.2 km


Bosnia and Herzegovina is a complex state consisting of two entities: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.

The General Framework Agreement for peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina was initialed in Dayton on November 21, 1995 and signed in Paris on December 14, 1995. This ruling specified the principles of state and legal structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Since the General Framework Agreement went into force, the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is officially called “Bosnia and Herzegovina”. The country continued its legal existence in accordance to international laws with recognized borders by the United Nations.


The total area of Bosnia and Herzegovina is 51,129 square km.

The border line is 1,537 km long: of which 762.5 km is terrestrial, 751.0 km is river and 23.5 km is made of sea borders. Bosnia and Herzegovina borders the Republic of Croatia (931 km), SR Yugoslavia – Serbia (375 km) and Montenegro (249 km).

On the north, Bosnia and Herzegovina has access to river Sava and on the south, it has access to the Adriatic Sea in Neum. The terrain in Bosnia and Herzegovina is mostly highland with an average height of 150 m above sea-level.

The climate is moderate continental and slightly Mediterranean in some localized areas. According to the 1991 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had 4.4 million inhabitants, of which 43.7% were Bosniaks, 31% were Serbs, 17.3% were Croats and 7.6% other nationalities.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has plenty of natural resources (forests, ore deposits and water potential) and developed industrial production of these resources with an average annual increase of 1.5% per year since 1992.

The national product per capita in 1991 was around USD 2,500. This meant that Bosnia and Herzegovina is classified as a medium developed country. In the history of world sports, Bosnia and Herzegovina and its capital Sarajevo will be remembered for successfully organizing the 4th Olympic Games in 1984 along with other significant international cultural, scientific and sports events.


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Official name

Bosnia and Herzegovina


Southeastern Europe, between 42°26′ and 45°15′ Northern Latitude and between 15°45′ and 19°41′ Eastern Longitude.

Land Boundaries

Total 1,537 km, with Croatia 931 km, with Montenegro 249 km, with Serbia 357 km. Coastline: 21.2 km.


51 129 km2


Dinarric mountains in the central and southern part, plains in the north along the river Sava.


Continental-hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool nean – long, hot summers and mild, rainy winters. Average January temperatures: Sarajevo, Zenica 1°C, Mostar 5°C; Tuzla, Bihać, Banja Luka 0° C. Average July temperatures: Sarajevo, Zenica, Tuzla, Bihać, Banja Luka 21°C; Mostar 25°C.


4 354 911

Population Density

85.2 per km2

race distribution

Official Languages

Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian

Main Cities

Sarajevo (Capital), Mostar, Tuzla, Zenica, Banja Luka, Bihać


Age Distribution








Life Expectancy

Male: 69.2 – Female: 74.6

Birth Rate

14.9 per 1000 population

Death Rate

4.8 per 1000 population



length 21,677 km


length 1,040 km

Passanger cars

450 298


Major primary commodities

Wood, Coal, Mineral

Manufactured products

Textiles, Clothing & Footwear, Chemical, Electrical and Machinery Iron, Steel & Aluminum, Rough Diamonds, Gemstones, Jewelry


Electricity, Coal & Coke

Labor force

Industry & Mining 44%, Agriculture 3.6%; Construction 7.4%, Services 45%


Monetary unit

Convertible Mark (1 KM = 1 DEM)

Gross domestic product

US$ 3.4 billion

Per capita GDP

US$ 880


US$ 1.5 billion


US$ 1.5 billion


Primary and secondary education

532,468 (1990/91)

Full-time and part-times students

34,644 (1990/91)

Graduate students

4,498 (1991)

-total in the period of 1964-91


Graduate students of the 3rd degree

162 (1991)

-total in the period of 1972-91


Doctors of sciences

88 (1991)

-total in the period of 1972-91:



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